Glossary of Technical Theatre Terms – Directing


ABOVE
An actor move upstage (e.g. Clive moves above the chair).

ACAPELLA
A sung performance which is not accompanied by musicians. (From the Italian A CAPELLA, meaning 'as in the chapel')

ACT
1) Subdivision between sections of a play. A short play is a 'One-Act-er', a play with one interval has two Acts etc. Acts are subdivided further into Scenes. 
2) The thing Actors can do which makes them different from Techies (!!).

ACTOR
Person (male or female) whose role is to play a character other than his/her own. Although the term 'actress' is sometimes still used for a female actor, many women prefer to have the same title as the men.

AD LIB
From Latin Ad libitum meaning "at one's pleasure".
The presence of mind by an actor to improvise when;
1) another actor fails to enter on cue
2) the normal progress of the play is disturbed
3) lines are forgotten
4) It may also be a bad habit developed by some actors whereby unnecessary "gags" are introduced into the dialogue.

In the past, any business or words that were not in the scripted act 'as known' would be seen as a breach of contract by some No.1 Managements. 

ANAGNORISIS
Anagnorisis is a moment in a play or other work when a character makes a critical discovery.

ANIMATEUR
(From French) Facilitator of a community, education or group event (social, cultural or artistic). The Animateur may be a group leader, or may have initiated a project. She or he is responsible for running the event.

ANNOUNCER
In seventeenth century theatre and street performances, the Announcer would greet the audience, and give the play some context, either in terms of political or social background, or just to fill in some background detail to help the audience understand. 

ANTAGONIST
The opposite of the PROTAGONIST in a drama.

ASIDE
Lines spoken by an actor to the audience and not supposed to be overheard by other characters on-stage.

AUDITION
Process where the director or casting director of a production asks actors / actresses / performers to show him/her what they can do. Sometimes very nerve-wracking, but auditions can be a fairly painless process if handled properly. Performers are often asked to memorise a monologue from a play they like to perform for the director. Books full of suggested monologues are available. You may be asked to do a 'Cold Reading' which tests your own response to a piece of text you've not prepared.

AWG
Australian Writers' Guild.
AWG website

BEAT
1) In acoustics, a periodic variation in amplitude which results from the addition of two sound waves with nearly the same frequency. Also affects radio reception.
2) A deliberate pause for dramatic / comic effect.
3) A measure of time when cueing (e.g. "the LX cue needs to go four beats after the door is closed").
4) A unit of action, as suggested by Stanislavski to help actors determine the through-line of a role.

BELT VOICE
Singing term - refers to a voice which has not been classically trained, but can 'belt out' songs. See also LEGIT VOICE. (For example Cosette in Les Miserables needs to have both a Legit Voice and a Belt Voice)

BREAK A LEG
A superstitious and widely accepted alternative to 'Good Luck' (which is considered bad luck). More available at the link below.
More on Break A Leg

BRECHT / BRECHTIAN*
TO BE DEFINED

BROADWAY
The group of 40 professional theatres with 500 or more seats located in the Theatre District centered along Broadway, and in Lincoln Center, in Manhattan in New York City, USA. Along with the West End of London, Broadway theatre is widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world.
Wikipedia Entry on Broadway Theatre

CABOTINAGE
Overacting, hammy performance, playing to the audience (from the French "Cabotin" - a strolling player / charlatan).

CALLBACKS
Following an audition, the director may ask to see a shortlist of actors again - they are called back for an additional audition to enable the director to make her/his decision.

CANTASTORIA
From the Italian for "Sung Story" or "Singing History" this is a theatrical form where a performer tells or sings a story while gesturing to a series of images. These images can be painted, printed or drawn on any sort of material.

CAST
The members of the acting company.

CASTING
The process of the director choosing actors to perform the characters in the play.

CATHARSIS
A catharsis occurs when a moment of high tragedy at the emotional climax of a play is followed by an emotional cleansing for the characters and the audience.

CENTRE CENTRE
End-On Stage Layout Plan (theatrecrafts.com) (CENTER CENTER in the USA) - the position in the centre of the stage space. Downstage Centre (DSC) is the position at the front of the stage, Upstage Centre (USC), and Centre Stage (CS) or CENTRE CENTRE is the centre. House Centre / House Center is the centre line of the auditorium (which is usually the same as that of the stage).
Blocking Notation

CENTRE STAGE
The middle portion of the stage - has good sightlines to all seats of the auditorium.

CHARACTER
1. The mental and moral qualities distinctive to an individual within the world of the play.
2. A named individual within the play (e.g. "There are ten characters in scene one, all of whom have speaking parts.").

CHARACTERISATION
The art of creating a character. Within the text, characters may be presented by means of description within stage directions or character descriptions which the actor must try to convey or through their actions, speech, or spoken thoughts within the text.

CHEAT OUT
An actor facing too far upstage (so that he/she is invisible to the audience) may be requested by the director to "cheat out", and turn downstage slightly, to improve audience sightlines. "Out" in this sense means towards the audience, and rather than being a derogatory term, "cheat" simply means to improve the situation (sightline in this case) without anyone realising it's not a totally natural position.

CHEWING THE SCENERY
An actor who gives a completely hammy and over-the-top performance is said to be Chewing the Scenery.
See the link below for more.
More about Chewing the Scenery

CHOREOGRAPHY
The art and craft of designing the moves, pace, flow, structure and execution of a piece of dance, or any other piece of rehearsed movement. This is usually carried out by a Choreographer, but choreography can be devised by a group of dancers. A stage combat sequence is also choreographed, but by a fight director.

CHORUS
1) In Greek theatre, a character (or group) representing an element in the drama which comments on the action, and advances the plot.
2) A sound processing effect which adds 'body' to a sound by overlapping a number of slightly delayed versions of the original sound.

CLIMAX
The significant moment in the plot of a play, when things change, or reach a crisis point.

COD PANTO
Nowadays believed to be an acronym of Crew On Display, but in fact dating back to Victorian times, when it meant a 'spoof' of something, the Cod Panto is a tradition in many British theatres that have pantomimes over Christmas. Including performances by (sometimes) all of the technical staff and (usually) none of the actual cast, the panto is written and rehearsed towards the end of the run and is performed in the last few days of the panto, and is often followed by a party. It's performed for the actors and any remaining crew and sometimes friends and family, but usually has an 18+ rating. Jokes refer to any incidents during the run of the show, and send everything up with no holds barred.

COLOUR-BLIND CASTING
Usually known as NON-TRADITIONAL CASTING, this is the casting of ethnic minority and female actors in roles where race, ethnicity, or sex is not specified, or against that specification. (e.g. an adult plays a child, a black actor plays a part previously played by caucasian actors, a woman plays a previously male role).

COMIC RELIEF
A comic scene (or line) included in an otherwise straight-faced play to provide a relief from tension for the audience.

COMMEDIA DELL' ARTE
Italian comic form - started in the Renaissance, and still has massive influence today. A range of stock characters (Harlequin, Captain, Doctor, Pantaloon, Zanni, the Lovers etc.) were represented by stylized masks. Each character had a series of comic "lazzi" (business). The performances were based on the pre-rehearsed lazzi, but were largely improvised.

CONCEPTUAL DIRECTOR
A non-traditional style of directing, which involves taking a text (play, musical) only as a starting point to express an idea or opinion, which may be unrelated to that of the original author of the text. Conceptual Directors of note include Jerzy Grotowski, Elizabeth LeCompte, Robert Wilson and Anne Bogarte (list from Theatre in Your Life by Robert Barton, Annie McGregor)

CONFLICT
A device setup by the playwright consisting of an argument, disagreement, need or inequality between characters. There are broadly four types of conflict:
1) Relational Conflict
This is the predominant type, and consists of a battle between the mutually exclusive goals of characters (often the protagonist & antagonist).
2) Societal Conflict
Occurs between an individual character (or small group) and a larger group or society.
3) Inner Conflict
A character struggling with her/himself; either trying to escape a mode of behavior (addictive) or a state of mind.
4) Situational Conflict
Involving a situation which must be escaped or resolved.

CONSCIENCE ALLEY
A useful technique for exploring any kind of dilemma faced by a character, providing an opportunity to analyse a decisive moment in greater detail. The class forms two lines facing each other. One person (the teacher or a participant) takes the role of the protagonist and walks between the lines as each member of the group speaks their advice. It can be organised so that those on one side give opposing advice to those on the other. When the protagonist reaches the end of the alley, she makes her decision. Sometimes known as Decision Alley or Thought Tunnel.
From DramaResource.com

CSM
Company Stage Manager

DÉNOUEMENT
The moment in a drama when the essential plot point is unravelled or explained. (e.g. "So you see I couldn't have killed the gardener. Because I AM the gardener" (Loud organ music etc.)).

DIALOGUE
The spoken text of a play - conversations between characters is dialogue. See MONOLOGUE and DUOLOGUE.

DICTION
The quality or style of speaking of a character within the play, consisting of components such as accent, inflection, intonation and enunciation. An actor whose words are clearly intelligible and audible is said to have good diction.

DIDACTIC

Didacticism is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature and other types of art. The term has its origin in the Ancient Greek word διδακτικός (didaktikos), "related to education and teaching", and signified learning in a fascinating and intriguing manner.
Didactic art was meant both to entertain and to instruct. Didactic plays, for instance, were intended to convey a moral theme or other rich truth to the audience. An example of didactic writing is Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism (1711), which offers a range of advice about critics and criticism. An example of didactism in music is the chant Ut queant laxis, which was used by Guido of Arezzo to teach solfege syllables. (from Wikipedia)

Wikipedia entry

DRAMATIC IRONY
A dramatic device whereby the audience is aware of something that one or more characters are not, and action onstage reflects the effect of this lack of knowledge (frequently comic, but also tragic). Dramatic Irony is often used to underline plot points for the audience.
Submitted by Gregg Shanks

DUOLOGUE
Part of a scene in a drama which is a scripted conversation between only two characters. See also MONOLOGUE and DIALOGUE.

EIGHT ASPECTS OF THEATRE
Refers to a book entitled The Theatre of Bertolt Brecht: A Study from Eight Aspects by John Willetts (1959). The eight aspects of Brecht's work that are analysed in the book are:
1) The Subject Matter
2) The Language
3) Theatrical Influences
4) The Music
5) Theatrical Practice
6) The Theory
7) Politics
8) The English Aspect.

ENSEMBLE
An acting group. Normally used to describe a group of actors who work well together, with no-one outshining the others. A performance where the emphasis is on group work, and there are no star performers, is an ensemble performance. 

EPILOGUE
Scene or speech which follows the main action of the play and provides some insight or comment on the action. See also PROLOGUE.

EQUITY
Short for British Actors' Equity (or American Actor's Equity Association, founded in 1913, is the labor union representing actors and stage managers in the legitimate theatre in the United States). The trade union of actors, directors, designers and stage managers.

EULOGY
A speech in praise of a person or thing, often a person who has recently died or moved on to a different role / job.

EXEUNT
(Latin) Stage direction meaning 'they leave'. Used to indicate that more than one person leaves the stage. The direction for a single person is simply Exit. 

EXPOSITION
The section of plot at the start of a play which provides essential background information about the characters, their situation, and their relationships to each other.

EXPRESSIONISM
Theatre design and performance style which places greater value on emotion than realism. The trademark Expressionist effects were often achieved through distortion.

FALLING ACTION
The events in a play that occur after the climax has been reached, but before the final part. 

FARCE
Form of comedy play originated in France, using fast-paced physical action and visual comedy more than humour based on language.

FIFTH BUSINESS
Now obsolete term for an actor who is neither the hero, heroine, villain or confidante in a traditional drama, but is nonetheless essential for revealing important plot points. She/he is known as Fifth Business.

FIGHT DIRECTOR
Choreographer of fight scenes on stage. Works intensively with actors training them how to avoid hitting (and hurting) each other, how to use weapons safely etc. Fight directors are highly skilled and trained and should not be substituted for someone 'who once saw Gladiator' and thinks they can repeat it!!
Society of American Fight Directors
Fightdirector.com

FLUFF
To hesitate - to nearly forget or fumble one's lines.

FOIL
1) A fencing blade, rectangular in cross-section (the Épée has a triangular cross-section, with a groove running down the length of the blade, and is heavier).
2) a subsidiary character who emphasizes the traits of a main character.

FORELOOK
Term not used in UK theatre - currently searching for a definition.

FORESHADOWING
Foreshadowing or adumbrating is a literary device in which an author indistinctly suggests certain plot developments that might come later in the story.
Wikipedia entry

FOUND SPACE
A performance space that wasn't designed to be one. Performances that take place outside the theatre (e.g. in historic buildings, factories, public areas) are said to be using found spaces.

FOURTH WALL
The imaginary wall of a box set through which the audience see the stage. The fourth wall convention is an established convention of modern realistic theatre, where the actors carry out their actions unaware of the audience.

FREEZE FRAME
A technique for allowing a character to 'step out' of a scene and reveal something to the audience, while the rest of the action freezes. The name comes from a film technique where the images is frozen in time.

FRENCH SCENE
A scene division within a play marked (as in French drama) by the entrance / exit of an actor. These divisions can be useful in splitting up rehearsal schedules, and for marking lighting changes etc.

GENRE
A style of performance - a way of categorising different types of drama.

GOD MIC
A PA system setup for a director to use in a large venue to talk to everyone on stage without shouting, during rehearsals and technical periods. Also used in some small or experimental spaces for tech crew to talk to actors or other crew, if no headset comms system or radios are available.

GRAND DRAPE
See GRAND CURTAIN.

GRAND GUIGNOL
Shock theatre form originally from Le Grand Guignol theatre in Montmartre, Paris (opened in 1897). Specialised in portraying the macabre & gruesome to the delight and horror of the audience.

HAM
Exaggerated over-acting.

HIT YOUR MARK
When an actor stands in the correct position (usually with regard to lighting) she/he is said to have Hit the Mark.

HOLDING FOR A LAUGH
A risky practice, this involves the actors and director pre-planning where the audience will laugh, and inserting suitable pauses in the action, or ensuring that nothing important will be missed if the audience is in stitches. However, if the audience fails to laugh, the pause will slow the pace of the performance. The actors must learn to react to the audience as they react. An even more dangerous practice is to assume that the audience of the show tonight will laugh at the same points as the audience of the previous show.

HOT SEATING
A technique used in interactive theatre when an actor, in character, is questioned by the audience about her/his actions.

IMPROVISATION
A comment or behaviour by an actor or group of actors that is not rehearsed or prepared (or, sometimes, authorised by the director). If the improvisation helps the performance move forward, appropriately, due to a technical or other issue, then improvisation can be helpful. If, however, it's put in to raise a laugh or breaks character or the mood of the scene, it is frowned on. 
See also AD LIB. 

INGENUE
The ingénue is a stock character in literature, film, and a role type in the theatre; generally a girl or a young woman who is endearingly innocent and wholesome. Ingénue may also refer to a new young actress or one typecast in such roles.

INSTALLATION
1) An electrical system in a particular building (e.g. "the stage lighting installation was tested last year")
2) A piece of art designed to transform a particular room or building into something other than a room in an art gallery. Installations often use complex audio-visual equipment and can be intensely immersive experiences. (e.g. "In the studio space this week we have an installation by John Doe entitled 'Space'")

INTENTION
Intention is an character's specific purpose in performing an action or series of actions, the end or goal that is aimed at. Outcomes that are unanticipated or unforeseen are known as unintended consequences.

INTERIOR MONOLOGUE
The interior (or internal) monologue is the stream of consciousness discussion a character has with her/himself whilst working through problems or issues confronting them. It can be delivered as a recorded voiceover, or possibly as an aside spoken direct to the audience.

INTERVAL
Break between sections of a performance. During a play, the interval is normally half way through a standard length performance (approx 1 hour each half) and is usually 15 or 20 minutes in duration. Known in the US as an INTERMISSION.

LEGIT VOICE
Singing term - refers to a classically trained voice (see also BELT VOICE)

LICENCE*
TO BE DEFINED

LINE-TOPPING
Undesirable behaviour where an actor responds with more volume or intensity to a line delivered to them.

LIVE ART
TO BE DEFINED

MAGIC IF
Stanislavskian technique which encourages actors to explore how they would feel and what would happen IF the situation in which the character they are portraying was to happen to them, or IF their personal circumstances were different.

MAKE-UP
Products applied to the face or body of an actor to change or enhance their appearance. See also GREASEPAINT.
Make-Up Resources at Theatrecrafts.com

MANTLE OF THE EXPERT
The mantle of the expert is a student-centered dramatic-inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning invented and developed by Professor Dorothy Heathcote at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne in the 1980s.
This approach inverts the typical teacher-to-student model of teaching by allowing the students to dictate their learning and educational process through creative drama. The students, rather than the teacher, are the main communicators in this process. (From Wikipedia) 
Wikipedia entry

MASK
1) Form of theatre where actors faces are covered with masks.
2) Early word for GOBO.

MELODRAMA
A Melodrama is a dramatic work that exaggerates plot and/or characters in order to appeal to the emotions. It is usually based around having the same character traits, (for example, a hero, who is fearless and who the audience is rooting for, the heroine, who is usually in peril of some kind, which the hero rescues her from; the villain (usually likes the heroine too) and villain's sidekick (typically gets in the way of or annoys the villain).
The term is also used in scholarly and historical musical contexts to refer to dramas of the 18th and 19th centuries in which orchestral music or song was used to accompany the action.

METHOD ACTING
Method Acting is any of a family of techniques used by actors to create in themselves the thoughts and emotions of their characters, so as to develop lifelike performances. Though not all Method actors use the same approach, the "method" in Method acting usually refers to the practice, influenced by Constantin Stanislavski and created by Lee Strasberg, in which actors draw upon their own emotions and memories in their portrayals (known as Emotional Recall), aided by a set of exercises and practices including sense memory and affective memory.

MIME
Form of performance with no spoken words. Plot, character etc. are conveyed to the audience by movement and gesture. From the Greek Mimos.
Marcel Marceau Foundation for the Advancement of the Art of Mime
Mummenschanz

MIRACLE PLAY
TO BE DEFINED

MISE EN SCÉNE
Although the term literally "placing on stage" in French, the Mise en Scene refers to much more than the setting of a performance or event. The term describes all of the visual aspects of a setting - props, lighting, costume as well as set design, and how the details can contribute to the telling of the story.

MONOLOGUE
A speech within a play delivered by a single actor alone on stage. See also SOLILOQUY, DUOLOGUE, DIALOGUE.

MORALITY PLAY*
TO BE DEFINED

MOTIF
A motif is any recurring element that has symbolic significance in a story. One example is the flute sound in Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman.

MOTIVATION
Part of METHOD ACTING, influenced by Stanislavski and created by Lee Strasberg. Strasberg uses the question, "What would motivate me, the actor, to behave in the way the character does?" Strasberg asks the actor to replace the play's circumstances with his or her own, the substitution.

MUMMERS PLAY*
TO BE DEFINED

MYSTERY PLAY*
TO BE DEFINED

MYTH
A traditional story, which may define how a particular civilisation came into being, or a tale with a clearly defined moral code designed for social education. Myths often involve supernatural beings and may be enhanced accounts of historial events, or as an allegory for or personification of natural phenomena, or as an explanation of a ritual.

NATURALISM*
1) When creating a lighting design, naturalism dictates that lanterns should be placed according to where the light would come from in nature. For example, a sunny day would be lit primarily from above the acting area, with fill lighting in from the sides as if from the cloud. A dark room would be lit by moonlight through a window, and the light level would increase when a door is opened from a lit corridor or when a light fitting is turned on.
2) Naturalism in performance: TO BE DEFINED.
3) Naturalism in scenic design: TO BE DEFINED.

NOISES OFF
Stage direction to indicate a clatter / bang offstage to which the cast should react. The type of noise should be indicated by the surrounding action!
Also, a farce by British playwright Michael Frayn about life backstage, featuring a large interval set change.

NOTES
Following a rehearsal (or an early performance in a run) the director will give notes to the cast and crew about where to make changes, improvements, cuts etc.

OBSTACLE
In acting terms, an obstacle is something which prevents a character from achieving her/his objective within the play. 

OFF BROADWAY
Originally referring to the location of a venue and its productions on a street intersecting Broadway in Manhattan's Theatre District, the hub of the theatre industry in the United States, the term later became defined by the League of Off-Broadway Theatres and Producers as a professional venue in New York City with a seating capacity between 100 and 499, or a specific production that appears in such a venue, and which adheres to related trade union and other contracts.
An Off-Off Broadway theatre has less than 100 seats.

OLIO
(from Spain / Portugal - ollo a spicy stew consisting of different meats and vegetables)
A collection of different acts (e.g. comedy, songs, dance, puppetry), or an act which isn't part of the main show, inserted to fill a gap, to cover a scene change or as an encore after a dramatic play. Example usage: 'The event was an olio of poetry, dance and songs'.

OVERTURE
Introductory musical piece played before a musical which contains many of the musical motifs and themes of the score.

PER DIEMS
See PDs.

PERIPETEIA

From Greek. A reversal of circumstances, or turning point.
The English form of peripeteia is peripety: a sudden reversal dependent on intellect and logic.


PHYSICAL THEATRE
Physical theatre is a genre of performance which makes use of the body (as opposed to the spoken word) as the primary means of performance and communication with an audience. In using the body, the performer or actor will concentrate on:
The use of body shape and position
Facial expressions
Rhythmical movement, pace and the energy of the body
Gesture
Posture
Gait
Physical theatre can be distinquished from dance in that it tends to focus more on narrative, character and action. However, the boundaries between the two are rather blurred.
There are various styles and genre of physical theatre. These include:
Physical comedy - where the body is the primary means of comic creation
Mime
Stomp- where the body, with external objects, is used for its percussive potential
Some forms of puppetry
Circus
The most famous institution devoted to physical theatre is the Lecoq school in Paris. Students here follow the method of Jacques Lecoq, which developed out of his experience of mask work, commedia dell'Arte and his interest in the physicality of performance.
Definition from Wikipedia - click for more
Lecoq School

PIANO-VOCAL
A vocal score, or piano-vocal score, is used by singers in a musical or opera (or operetta). The vocal parts are written out in full, but the detail of the accompaniment is reduced and adapted for piano, so it can be used in rehearsals, and easily followed.

POSTER
Posters by Dewynters (from Victoria & Albert Collection) (Dewynters) Advertising material for an event. The poster contains the name of the event, the date and time, cost of ticket, how to get a ticket, and where the event is taking place. It should also contain information (for example, a recommended minimum age) that may prevent a person booking. It should have an appropriate design for the type of event, and often contains a photograph or image as a background to the textual information. Some memorable posters are very simple in design. Website and social media links can also be included on the poster.
Other advertising materials could include fliers (small versions of the poster, with additional information on the back), newspaper adverts, radio adverts, TV spots, T shirts, other apparel (baseball caps, beanies) etc.
The UK design agency Dewynters is responsible for many iconic posters for West End shows - their approach is to make the poster image strong enough to be seen even if it's passing by at speed (e.g. on a bus or being seen from a car). Their most famous posters (e.g. Phantom of the Opera or Cats) are successful due to the strong 'logo' design which carries a simple message about the show, and can be recognised at a glance. 
Italian: Locardina
UK National Theatre Posters Gallery
UK Theatre Posters by Dewynters at the Victoria & Albert Museum

PREPRODUCTION
Planning phase of production before actors rehearse (or sometimes have even been cast) and before sets are built. Brings together the production team in discussions about style, possibilities and budgets.

PREVISUALISATION
Computerised tools which enable design teams to show directors and other members of the production team how lighting or scenic automation will look before the set is even built. See WYSIWYG.

PRODUCTION DESK
Table in the auditorium at which director/designer etc sit during rehearsals (especially technical rehearsals). Usually has its own lighting and communications facilities.

PROLOGUE
Short scene or speech before the main action of the play to put it into context or set the scene. See also EPILOGUE.

PROTAGONIST
The leading character or 'hero' in a play who has to fight against / oppose the ANTAGONIST.
This term derives from the theatre of Ancient Greece when the Protagonist was the first actor to speak (aside from the CHORUS). As more 'lead' actors were added, they became known as the Deuteragonist and Tritagonist.

READ THROUGH
A meeting with all cast and (sometimes all) creative team members to read through the script. Usually happens at the start of the rehearsal process, to orient the cast and help them get to know each other and the text.

REALISM
Realism in theatre describes a decision by the creative team to present the audience with an accurate depiction of the real world, rather than a stylized interpretation. Examples are Kitchen sink realism, an English cultural movement in the 1950s and 1960s that concentrated on contemporary social realism, or Poetic realism, a film movement in France in the 1930s that used heightened aestheticism. In the visual arts the term denotes any approach that depicts what the eye can see, such as in American realism, a turn of the 20th century idea in arts, Classical Realism, an artistic movement in late 20th Century that valued beauty and artistic skill.

REHEARSAL
(from Latin hirpex - 'large rake used as a harrow'. Rehearse means 're-harrow', or to 'go over again'. It originally meant 'to repeat' (mid 14th century). It wasn't until the late 16th century that it came to it's modern meaning.)
A session when actors are called to work through some scenes from the play in private. A TECHNICAL REHEARSAL is the first time when technical elements (lighting, set etc.) are combined with actors. A DRESS REHEARSAL is a performance of the show as it will be on opening night.

RELAXED PERFORMANCE
A Relaxed Performance is one specifically modified to help audience members with special needs to feel at home in the theatre, and to enable them to feel able to make noise and comment on the performance when they wish to. They are designed for audience members with autism, learning disabilities and sensory or communication needs. The sound level is often reduced, complex lighting changes are simplified, and the cast and company warn families when unexpected noises will occur. Often the house lights are left on, and the audience is given a pre-show tour of the theatre so that they are familiar with the environment. The performances sit alongside special measures for audio-description and signed performances for those with sight or hearing impairments, and were introduced to the West End in mid 2013.
Guardian article on Relaxed Performances at the National Theatre, UK
Society of London Theatre Relaxed Performances information

RESOLUTION
1) The point during a drama when the plotline reaches a conclusion, and conflict is resolved.
2) A measure of the quality of a video display
3) The quality of a sound sample is measured by the sample rate (e.g. 44.1kHz is CD quality sample rate) and the resolution (either 8 bit or 16 bit normally).

RUN-THROUGH
A rehearsal of the show (or a section of it). Often shortened to just RUN. See also TECHNICAL RUN, DRESS RUN. The first run-through is often known as a STAGGER-THROUGH as there are usually many errors and delays.

SCRIPT
The text of a musical or play. Also contains stage directions and other notes.

SITE-SPECIFIC THEATRE
A piece of performance which has been designed to work only in a particular non-theatre space. The space may have been adapted to fit into the themes or style of the production. A site-sensitive piece, on the other hand, will not adapt the space, but work with it's style and history to create a piece of performance. See also INSTALLATION.

SITZPROBE
(German for seated rehearsal). The first rehearsal between Opera singers and the orchestra. No attempt is made to act or move the production at this rehearsal.

SKIN MONEY
Extra payment made to actors/actresses when nudity is required on stage.

SLAPSTICK
1) Two pieces of wood loosely joined at one end, which make a loud 'slap' sound when used to hit something / someone. 2) Form of physical comedy where people get hit, covered in custard pies or showered with water.

SLATE
(Actor audition term) When auditioning on-camera, or when recording a piece of footage, an actor may be asked to Slate their name and their agent's name, or to Slate the scene being recorded. This term is from the film industry when a piece of slate with chalk writing on it to indicate the actor being shot was filmed for a few frames before the actor, to enable later identification.

SOLILOQUY
Lines delivered by an actor on stage as if to her/himself. See also MONOLOGUE, DIALOGUE.

SPAA
Screen Producers Association of Australia.
SPAA website

SPEAR CARRIER
See WALK-ON.

STAGE LEFT / RIGHT
Left/ Right as seen from the Actor's point of view on stage. (ie Stage Left is the right side of the stage when looking from the auditorium.)
Stage Right = OP (Opposite Prompt) French: Cote Jardin, Netherlands: Toneel Links (translates to Stage Left!)
Stage Left = PS (Prompt Side) French: Cote Cour, Netherlands: Toneel Rechts (translates to Stage Right!).
NB: The Netherlands, Portugal and Germany use the opposite to the rest of Europe; i.e. Stage Left UK = Stage Right. The directions are seen from the director's and audience's perspective, NOT the actors. In Portugal Isquerda (left) is the equivalent of UK Stage Right and Direita (right) is the equivalent of UK Stage Left.
More about Cour / Jardin

SUBPLOT*
TO BE DEFINED

SUBTEXT*
Subtext or undertone is content of a book, play, musical work, film, video game, or television series which is not announced explicitly by the characters (or author) but is implicit or becomes something understood by the observer of the work as the production unfolds. Subtext can also refer to the thoughts and motives of the characters which are only covered in an aside. Subtext can also be used to imply controversial subjects without specifically alienating people from the fiction, often through use of metaphor.

SWING
A member of the cast of a musical (or a play with a large cast) who understudies multiple chorus roles in the production. When a chorus member is not well, has a day off or, in some cases, is performing in a principal role for which he or she is the understudy, a swing performs in this chorus member's place. In the cast of a musical, there will be a male swing who understudies all the male chorus roles in the cast, and also a female swing who understudies all the female chorus roles. In larger casts, there might be two or more swings for each gender. Swings are members of the cast who are in addition to those called for by the script, so in a performance where all of the chorus members and all the actors playing principal roles are present, the swings will not be performing in that particular performance -- although in most cases they will be waiting backstage to be available in the event they are needed.
See also ALTERNATE, STANDBY, UNDERSTUDY.
Submitted by Pierce Peter Brandt

TABLE READ
An initial read-through of the script of a show, with actors and creative team sitting around a table. It allows the whole team to become familiar with the script, and each other in a non-threatening environment.

TELESCOPING
Actor's lines that are overlapped in the original text, or a direction to do so. Used to increase the intensity of dialogue.

THEATRE OF CRUELTY*
TO BE DEFINED

THEATRE OF THE ABSURD*
TO BE DEFINED

THESPIAN
Named after the Greek actor Thespis (considered to be the founder of Greek tragedy), a Thespian is a follower of Thespis - an Actor.
Submitted by June Lathrop

THOUGHT TRACKING
Thought-tracking is a technique used in workshopped drama sessions to explore a character's thoughts during a narrative. It often takes the shape of an exercise where the action is frozen and a character is asked to speak a few words about his or her feelings and thoughts for the rest of the group.

TIE
Abbreviation for Theatre In Education

TRAGEDY
Tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes in its audience an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in the viewing. While many cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, the term tragedy often refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of Western civilization.

TRAGI-COMEDY / TRAGICOMEDY
Tragicomedy is a literary genre that blends aspects of both tragic and comic forms. Most often seen in dramatic literature, the term can variously describe either a tragic play which contains enough comic elements to lighten the overall mood or a serious play with a happy ending.

TYPECAST
An actor who is regularly cast in the same kind of roles is said to be TYPECAST. If an actor has played similar roles for a while (e.g. muscle-bound baddie) and is cast in a completely different role (e.g. a nanny) he's said to have been cast AGAINST TYPE.

UNIT OF ACTION
Units of action, or units (sometimes also called beats), were first suggested by Konstantin Stanislavski as a means of helping actors determine the through line or super objective of a role. A unit is a discrete piece of action in a play-text, marked by a significant change in action. This could be a change in what the characters already on stage are doing or trying to do, i.e. a change in their objective, a new character entering the scene or those already on stage exiting.

VERBATIM THEATRE
A performance based on words taken from an interview with a member of the public, usually forming a dramatised version of real-life events.

VERFREMDUNGSEFFEKT
Also known as Distancing Effect or Alienation Effect, this is a concept coined by Bertholt Brecht "which prevents the audience from losing itself passively and completely in the character created by the actor, and which consequently leads the audience to be a consciously critical observer."

VIEWPOINTS
(From Wikipedia) Viewpoints is a technique of composition that provides a vocabulary for thinking about and acting upon movement and gesture. Originally developed in the 1970s by choreographer Mary Overlie as a method of movement improvisation, The Viewpoints theory was adapted for stage acting by directors Anne Bogart and Tina Landau.

VIGNETTE
A short impressionistic scene that focuses on one moment or gives a trenchant impression about a character, idea, setting, or object. This type of scene is more common in recent postmodern theater, where less emphasis is placed on adhering to the conventions of theatrical structure and story development. Vignettes have been particularly influenced by contemporary notions of a scene as shown in film, video and television scripting.

WALK-ON
A small acting role with no lines. Also known as SPEAR CARRIER.

WARM-UP
The Warm-Up prepares the actor's body for the performance by exercising (literally warming up) muscles, stretching limbs, and getting the cast to focus on the performance and to forget about anything outside the walls of the theatre.