Glossary of Technical Theatre Terms – Rigging


BARREL
See BAR.

BASE PLATE
A metal plate which prevents damage to floors when using scaffolding or trussing.

BASKET
The generic rigger's term for using a basket hitch with an extra shackle to ease or speed fitting or removing slings at height or in awkward situations.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

BASKET HITCH
A method of slinging that employs a sling wrapped around an object and both ends or eyes being connected by a component at the support point, hook, etc..
To lift a load as if in a basket.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

BASKET SHACKLE
Rigging term: In a BASKET assembly the basket shackle is the bow shackle connecting basket hitch sling to the rest of the lifting system (motor, down leg, etc..) Sometimes called the base shackle (US).
Submitted by Chris Higgs

BEBEE
(US) An American lever hoist, the name of which is often used generically for any lever chain hoist.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

BELAY
Marine rigging term for making off a line. Often encountered in climbing and mountaineering meaning the actions of rope management in arresting falls.
The belay is the attachment point to a rockface or structure. The belayer is the person tending the rope and belaying equipment (see DYNAMIC BRAKING) and 'to belay' means to perform the action of belaying. Originally with just gloved hands, now via sophisticated friction devices.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

BOWLINE
Most riggers' knot of choice. Secure and easy to undo after heavy loading.
Submitted by Chris Higgs. Video

BOX TRUSS
See TRUSS.

BRIDLE
1) A vee-shaped arrangement of lifting equipment or rigging materials that enable load to be spread or shared between the 'legs' of the bridle, usually around four feet apart. Also, to reduce structural spans between suspension lines by creating such 'vees' at pick up points on the structure, or an assembly arranged to create a lifting point where required between two or more structural points.
2) The steering device on a horse.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

BULLET
American device (from the overhead power distribution industry) that grips a wire rope by spring-loaded 'collet' jaws.Not designed for supporting weight.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

BURLAP
Sackcloth hessian, used as softening under steel wire rope slings. It's used because it's flexible and easy to use, and will not cause injury when dropped.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

CARABINER
Spring-loaded clip device used by climbers and also in stage rigging.
Named after the carbine gun which had a spring loaded gate.

CATENARY
Horizontal wire rope under tension (from the Latin 'catena' meaning a chain, the curve associated with a horizontally stretched chain length which is impossible to straighten due to it's self weight).
Submitted by Chris Higgs

CHOKE
Rigging term: A slinging pattern made by passing one end of a sling through the opposite end's eye or by making a 'lark's head' loop with an endless sling (also CHOKER HITCH (US) or STRANGLE (UK)). Useful, but reduces the SWL/WLL of the sling by 20%.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

CHORD
The main horizontal member(s) in a truss/lattice structure.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

CLUTCH
1) Purpose designed 'chain system' forging that allows a link of sling chain to be grabbed in order to shorten the reach or length of the chain. The forging ensures the 'grabbed' link is correctly loaded and no link is trapped or damaged.
2) A sailing term for a device that grips a control line or sheet in a modern rigging design.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

CM / C.M.
Manufacturer. (Columbus McKinnon Corporation.) American manufacturer of lifting equipment, including the Lodestar chain hoist range and STAC chain used in entertainment rigging.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

COME ALONG
A lever hoist or tackle set designed for tensioning of pulling, particularly associated with catenary wire and guy rope rigging.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

CROSBY
Manufacturer of shackles and lifting hardware (US, Canada and Belgium)
Crosby Group website
Submitted by Chris Higgs

CROSBYS
US for saddle and 'U' cable clamps (from the manufacturers name).
Crosby Group website

DEAD
1) A pre-plotted height for a piece of scenery or lighting bar - 'that bar's on its dead'. The positional indicators on the rope (either PVC tape, or more traditionally cotton tape passed through the strands of the rope) are called DEADS. Sometimes flying pieces are given a number of extra deads, that may be colour coded, in addition to the 'in dead' (lower) and 'out dead' (higher - out of view). In the US, TRIM has the same meaning. Fluorescent ribbon is often used, through the fibres of the rope. The fluorescent colour shows very clearly under UV light, which is often used to light fly floors. 
2) Scenery or equipment not needed for current production - 'that table's dead'.
3) An electric circuit that has been switched off or has failed - 'the circuit's dead, you can change the lamp now'
Submitted by Chris Higgs

DEAD HANG
A rigging point direct to the grid / beams above the stage, not to a flying bar.

DEAD LINE
A static suspension, 'drop wire' or bracing line. A suspension without any lifting power.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

DEAD OUT
To replace a hoist or winch suspension with a dead line. Once the truss or piece is at trim, to tranfer the load onto 'dead lines' and remove the hoists or lifting devices.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

DOG
Colloquial term for a wire rope grip. Occasional a rope 'dog' or a girder 'dog' - a device that clamps.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

DRIFT
1) The effective travelling distance of a suspension barrel between the lowest it can reach with the scenic piece attached and the underside of the grid. The drift will be variable depending on the depth of a scenic piece suspended beneath the barrel. ie the comment 'there isn't enough drift' will usually mean that a piece cannot be flown out sufficently high to mask.
2) The wire that is used to achieve the drift (e.g. 'pass me a 2 metre drift, please').

DRIFT WIRE
A length of suspension wire of standard length with eyelets at each end between the counterweight bar and the top of the scenic piece flown from it.

DROP SHACKLE
The other bow shackle in a 'basket' assembly, the one that is actually screwed in use (unscrew it and the load drops!)
Submitted by Chris Higgs

DROP WIRE
The vertical wire rope used for rigging or suspending an object from a 'rigging point'. Often provided by a venue for their client to fix to (to maintain control over rigging practices). Also known as a DROPPER.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

DWG
File type for a CAD file (short for DraWinG). The format is used for storing two and three dimensional design data and metadata. It is the native format for several CAD packages including AutoCAD, IntelliCAD (and its variants) and Caddie. In addition, DWG is supported non-natively by many other CAD applications. The .bak (drawing backup), .dws (drawing standards), .dwt (drawing template) and .sv$ (temporary automatic save) files are also DWG files.

DYNAMIC
1) A DYNAMIC LOAD employs powered lifting equipment that magnifies the loading on the supporting equipment and structure due to the need to overcome the force of gravity.
2) A DYNAMIC ROPE is one that will absorb energy by stretching.
3) DYNAMIC BRAKING is a technique where progressively firmer braking is applied, as opposed to a sudden braking force. See also STATIC.
Submitted by Chris Higgs.

FERRULE
The metal sleeve used to form an eye termination in steel wire rope which is pressed onto the rope under pressure from a hydraulic tool. Usually made from aluminium alloy, copper or steel.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

FLEMISH EYE
Quick eyesplice in six strand wire ropes. Three adjacent strands are unlaid in order and laid up again in balance. The rope's core is removed. Strands 1 - 3 are then laid against strands 4 - 6 and re laid to form a six strand rope eye. The loose ends are tidied and a serving applied over the ends to prevent them unlaying. The splice is as strong as the rope.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

GRIPPLE
Proprietary device designed originally for agricultural use that can be used to form eye terminations in wire rope for non lifting applications.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

HOIST
Generic term for a lifting machine.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

KADER CLAMP
Metal clamp designed to fit onto the kader grooved roof beams of a clear span marquee. Typically, the clamps are rated with a safe working load around 150kg each, but the marquee supplier must provide you with information about what the roof beams are rated to support. Extra care should be taken if there are unusual loads on the roof (rain / snow / wind).

KLEIN BAG
A canvas tool bucket originally designed for 'utility' contractors in the US, stout canvas with a rope handle and plastic or leather base. Ideally suited to and adopted for collecting hoist chain. Available as strong and large enough for up to 30m lengths of 7mm / 5/16' hoist chain.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

KLEIN TOOL
Klein Tools Inc. have been making tools since 1857, the 'tool' referred to is a generic term for two items, the 'Chicago' or 'Haven' grip, which are self gripping wire rope pulling tools, useful for tensioning catenary wires and general wire rope gripping jobs in rigging.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

LAY
The direction and angle in which strands are 'twisted' in rope making) which in turn determines the 'hardness' of the lay (flexibility) in fibre ropes and the 'pitch' (frequency with which a strand appears when viewed along one side) of any rope.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

LEG
1) Each sling used as part of a multiple sling, e.g. a 'two leg sling' has two slings used as the 'legs' of the sling. A bridle 'leg' is therefore one half of a two 'leg' bridle, or one third of a three way bridle, etc.
2) See LEGS.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

LINE
A rope length, once cut to length or installed for a specific function. (To cut a line from a coil of rope)
Submitted by Chris Higgs

LOLER
Abbreviation for Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (UK Health & Safety Executive).
A Brief Guide To Lifting Equipment At Work (HSE)

MOTOR
Generic term for an electric chain hoist. (Rumoured to have been started by an enquiry as to whether 'CM' stood for 'chain motor').
Submitted by Chris Higgs

MOTOR-UP
Term used when a self climbing motor is rigged conventionally, i.e motor up. Motor down is sometimes used to convey the opposite, but in general it is understood that all motors 'climb'.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

MOUSING
Mousing a shackle when rigging means using wire or a cable tie / zip tie to hold the shackle pin in place to stop it working loose. (NB the mousing device is not load bearing, it's only holding the pin in place).

NODE
The connection between structural members in a construction (from Latin, a knot).
Submitted by Chris Higgs

NRAG
(UK) National Rigging Advisory Group
NRAG website

OPERATING SIDE
The side of the stage (either stage right or stage left) where the fly lines are operated from.

PASMA
UK trade association for the mobile access tower industry. The acronym stands for Prefabricated Access Suppliers’ & Manufacturers’ Association Ltd.

PICKLE
Small handheld motor controller that plugs into a cable connected to a winch or other motorised system.

POINT
The rigging point or hanging point to which the lifting machine or suspension component is rigged. Can be temporary ('rigging the points'), or permanent, 'the house points' for example.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

PPE / P.P.E.*
(UK - Health & Safety) Abbreviation of Personal Protective Equipment. More information coming soon.

REEVE
Old Norwegian for threading, any threading action, - lacing, choking etc..
Submitted by Chris Higgs

ROOF
The rigging structure or existing structure used for rigging from.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

ROPE ACCESS
The technique involving the use of ropes in tension to enable access to workstations otherwise too dangerous or costly with traditional methods.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

ROUNDSLING
An endless sling made of a coil of (man made) fibres sheathed in a protective man-made cover, flexible, soft, light weight and cheap
Submitted by Chris Higgs

RUNNER
Climbing - abbr. for 'running belay'. An intermediate means of protection where an anchor is placed through which the climbing rope can run. In the event of a fall, the climber should fall only as far as the length of rope between him and the highest running belay he has arranged will allow. The rope absorbs the energy in the fall provided the belay and belaying is sound and the running belay holds firm.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

SAFE SYSTEM OF WORK
UK Health and Safety terminology. Can be defined as 'the integration of people, articles and substances in a suitable environment and workplace to produce and maintain an acceptable standard of safety. In this system, due consideration should be given to foreseeable emergencies and the provision of adequate facilities'
Submitted by Chris Higgs

SHACKLE
A metal connecting device originally for joining chain, comprising two parts. An open link connects the items to be joined and a pin is fitted to make the link complete. Many sizes and designs exist, the most common to the entertainment world being the screw pin 'bow' or 'anchor' shackle, originally for fixing chains to anchor stocks. The pin should always loaded in shear, not in tension.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

SLEEVED STEEL
A 'steel' that is fitted at manufacture with a loose protective sleeve of PVC tubing (ideally transparent, to permit examination of the wire rope) or roundsling sheathing.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

SOFTENING
The materials used to protect a sling or an object from sling damage (burlap or PVC sheathing etc.)
Submitted by Chris Higgs

SPREADER PLATE
Part of the flying system, commonly used in the US. Spreader plates are thin steel plates with holes, through which the arbor connecting rods pass. The plates are lowered onto the counterweights approximately every two feet, to ensure the rod spacing is maintained. A locking plate is lowered onto the finished stack of weights and spreader plates and is secured in place with a thumbscrew.

STAC CHAIN
Columbus McKinnon 'Special Theatrical Alloy Chain'. Long link alloy chain sling product for use in line only. Comprises 5.4 ton 3' links in a three or five foot length. Used in bridle adjustment and as a versatile secondary suspension component.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

STEEL
1) Refers to a steel blue / pale blue lighting gel. (Lee 117) (e.g. 'Use the Steel General Cover for the scene in the castle'). See also STRAW.
2) Many set construction now uses steel frames with timber cladding. Steel is stronger and lighter weight compared to timber of the same size.
3) Generic term used for a plain wire rope sling. Also used when referring to roof structural steel and individual steel beams or scaffold materials and so on.
Additional information submitted by Chris Higgs.

STEEL OFF
To install secondary 'steel' suspensions, deads or bypasses ('safeties').
Submitted by Chris Higgs

STINGER
Steel wire rope sling used to extend the length or reach of a hoist chain or to allow a hoist to reach the ground from the point, (a 'down leg').
Submitted by Chris Higgs

STRAND
1) (Manufacturer) Maker of lanterns, lighting desks and dimmers in the UK and Worldwide.
2) The bundle of individual fibres or wires that make up one of the helical elements in a rope.
Strand Lighting website
Strand Archive

TALURIT
A proprietary wire rope ferrule/press tool system. Manufactured by Talurit AB in Sweden.
Submitted by Chris Higgs
Talurit website

THIMBLE
Protective metal or plastic loop used to reinforce and protect the eye at the end of a wire rope. Specifications vary according to use, but all conform to basic rules of proportion in forming the correct size loop for the rope diameter/type.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

TIRFOR
A wire rope hoist that utilises twin sets of jaws to grip on the rope. Actually a French manufacturer of lifting equipment, but like Hoover, one particular style was so successful, the name stuck to that type of winch.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

TOPPING AND TAILING
1) See Cue to Cue.
2) The practice of reversing 'hemp' lines in a theatre to spread wear over as great a length of rope as possible. Over a period of time this practice can considerably increase rope lifetime, especially if lines are rotated between sets as well as positions in the grid (The short of set 1 becomes the long of set 40, for example)
Additional information submitted by Chris Higgs

VERLINDE
The European manufacturer of self-climbing chain hoists and other lifting equipment.
Verlinde website
Submitted by Chris Higgs

WHIP
To apply whipping twine to the ends of a rope to prevent it unlaying.
Also, in rigging, a WHIP is a single line over a single sheave used as a handling aid.
Submitted by Chris Higgs

WLL / W.L.L.*
(UK - Health & Safety) Abbreviation for Working Load Limit.

WRAP
Rigging term: To wrap a beam or truss with a sling, or the short sling used for so doing, e.g. a 'truss wrap' is used to wrap a truss.
In film and television production, the end of a day's work or session.
Submitted by Chris Higgs