Accessible Theatre

An overview of techniques to help with special needs, language barriers or impaired vision or hearing.

Accessible Events

Five Ways to connect with disabled audiences (from Guardian Culture Professionals blog)

Using Captions

Many operatic performances are sung in their original language, which may not be the language of the audience. Touring opera companies regularly set up LCD monitors at the edge of the stage so that translations cannot be provided. Permanent opera houses often use surtitles (on screens above the stage). These are known as open captions (OC) as the audience members require no additional equipment to view them.

Some venues provide closed captioning (CC) which often consists of a sheet of semi-transparent mirror which is placed in front of the audience member that would like captions, and reflects a screen at the rear of the auditorium which carries a mirror image (reversed) of the captions.

Audio Description (AD)

A service greatly appreciated by those with impaired vision, AD involves a describer sitting at the rear of the auditorium (in the booth if there is room) providing a narration describing the action on stage. The skill is in not getting in the way of the on stage dialogue, sound effects or other audible movements on stage, but filling in where vision would help with the plot.

Sign Language

A sign language interpreter stands at the side of the stage, near to seating that has been set aside for those with hearing difficulties, and is illuminated by a spotlight. Throughout the performance, the interpreter signs the lines or sound cues that the audience cannot hear.

Assistive Hearing Systems

    • Induction Loop
      Relatively cheap to install, this consists of an amplifier, connected to a loop of impedance-matched cable around the venue, which creates a magnetic field which is easily picked up by anyone with a hearing aid with a ‘T’ switch. It’s the preferred system for any suitable venue, because it requires no extra equipment for the audience member.
      However, the quality of the signal can be variable in some venues, depending on the quality of the cable.

  • Infra-red receiver headphones
    A transmitter, mounted at the front of the auditorium, transmits invisible infra-red radiation, which is picked up by a headset worn by any audience member that requires it. The cost is greater than the induction loop, but the quality of the audio is far superior. The headsets require recharging and managing (to ensure the audience members that request it actually receive one, and return it after the event).



  • MobileConnect by Sennheiser
      • New system that uses a users’ smartphone to deliver a high quality audio mix over wifi. See document on the right for details.
        More information on Sennheiser’s MobileConnect website


Relaxed Performances

A Relaxed Performance is one specifically modified to help audience members with special needs to feel at home in the theatre, and to enable them to feel able to make noise and comment on the performance when they wish to. They are designed for audience members with autism, learning disabilities and sensory or communication needs. The sound level is often reduced, complex lighting changes are simplified, and the cast and company warn families when unexpected noises will occur. Often the house lights are left on, and the audience is given a pre-show tour of the theatre so that they are familiar with the environment. The performances sit alongside special measures for audio-description and signed performances for those with sight or hearing impairments, and were introduced to the West End in mid 2013.

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